June is National Homeownership Month. Americans often think of their homes as more than just a place to "hang their hats." Homeownership has long been considered part of the greater "American Dream" that includes "Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness" as mentioned in our country's Declaration of Independence.
Here’s a rundown of key events related to homeownership dating back to our nation’s infancy:
1785: The man who was the second vice president and third president of the United States believed that property ownership was a citizen's right. Thomas Jefferson pushed for legislation that helped define property lines and a system for purchasing land that was the basis for how real estate and ownership are described and transferred today, called the Land Ordinance of 1785.
1862: President Abraham Lincoln signed the Homestead Act into law, which helped establish the western part of the country through migration. Settlers who paid a filing fee and completed five years of continuous residence received ownership of 160 acres of public land. Homesteaders also had the option of purchasing the land from the government for $1.25 per acre. The Homestead Act led to the distribution of 80 million acres of public land by 1900.
1929: Bank collapses, millions of jobs and life savings lost during the Great Depression resulted in up to a quarter of the nation's mortgages going into default. The number of mortgages dropped dramatically from nearly 6,000 in 1928 to under 1,000 in 1933. U.S. homeownership dropped to its lowest levels of the century in 1940.
1934: The Federal Housing Administration (FHA) was formed and provided access to flexible mortgage financing. Prior to establishment of the FHA, mortgages required 50% down payments and terms were generally five or ten years long and usually had large balloon payments due at the end.
1944: Congress passed the Servicemen's Readjustment Act - more commonly known as the GI Bill of Rights. The GI Bill helped veterans pay for college and buy homes. The Veterans Administration (VA) still insures low- to zero-down payment loans for veterans, active-duty service members and their spouses.
2004: A storm was brewing as lending thresholds and interest rates dropped, making mortgages easy to get and driving home prices up.
2007: The nationwide real estate bubble that formed due to frenzied demand amidst loose lending practices burst, and home prices began a multi-year decline that led to approximately eight million foreclosures.
2009: First-time home buyer tax credits and other housing stimulus programs were established to help homeowners avoid foreclosure.
2011: U.S. housing prices bottomed out in March, having dropped by 33%.
2018: U.S. housing values recovered all $9-trillion dollars lost in the housing crisis of the prior decade.
2019: After a long-anticipated span of rising mortgage interest rates that began in 2018, rates for 30-year fixed rate mortgages experienced the sharpest one-week drop in over a decade in late March, setting the stage for higher affordability heading into the traditionally busy home buying and selling season.
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Sources: Library of Congress, CoreLogic, Freddie Mac, Zillow